Supplementary Table 1. Age of probands with autism.

Age (years)

N

3-6

10

7-10

8

11-14

5

15-18

4

19+

3

Total

30

 

Supplementary Table 2. IQ of the thirteen of thirty probands with autism who were able to complete testing.

Verbal IQ

Nonverbal IQ

Full-Scale IQ

Standard Score

N

N

N

>115

3

5

2

100-115

3

4

6

85-99

6

3

4

70-84

1

1

1

55-69

0

0

0

<55

0

0

0

Total

13

13

13

The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) was administered. Seventeen participants were too young (<6 years of age) or not testable due to inability to comprehend testing demands and/or inability to cooperate during testing. Four of the 13 subjects with valid IQ data were not able to complete eye movement testing.

Supplementary Table 3. Adaptive functioning of probands with autism.

Communication

Skills

Daily Living Skills

Socialization Skills

Motor Skills

Adaptive Behavior Composite

Standard Score

N

N

N

N

N

>115

0

0

0

0

0

100-115

3

1

0

5

1

85-99

3

5

1

6

2

70-84

6

4

3

6

4

55-69

3

8

13

2

8

<55

9

6

7

2

9

Total

24

24

24

21

24

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Interview Form (VABS) was administered to parents of all probands . Six interviews could not be completed due to scheduling issues. Three additional interviews did not assess motor skills because probands were too old for a valid assessment of this domain.

Supplementary Table 4. Visually guided saccade performance of family members and controls.

Family Members (N=57)

Controls (N=40)

Target displacement

Gap

Overlap

Gap

Overlap

Latency in ms ( sd )

Leftward 30 deg

195.96 (48.34)

304.69 (56.99)

195.69 (46.98)

311.78 (67.86)

Leftward 20 deg

170.97 (44.44)

271.77 (53.18)

169.50 (43.02)

280.47 (53.98)

Leftward 10 deg

166.06 (38.83)

243.33 (53.97)

173.21 (37.12)

239.67 (52.46)

Rightward 10 deg

164.55 (32.74)

246.72 (53.69)

174.22 (34.66)

248.45 (50.08)

Rightward 20 deg

179.23 (43.15)

264.29 (47.04)

188.65 (54.84)

275.56 (51.07)

Rightward 30 deg

222.02 (46.33)

344.52 (59.73)

219.85 (56.19)

347.68 (55.18)

Saccade error in deg ( sd )

Leftward 30 deg

2.77 (1.94)

1.78 (.87)

2.18 (1.04)

1.97 (1.29)

Leftward 20 deg

1.87 (.86)

1.54 (.62)

1.77 (1.05)

1.28 (.75)

Leftward 10 deg

1.13 (.47)

.93 (.41)

.99 (.65)

.94 (.50)

Rightward 10 deg

1.03 (.50)

1.01 (.42)

1.02 (.69)

1.07 (.61)

Rightward 20 deg

1.92 (.91)

1.57 (.74)

1.50 (.97)

1.41 (.70)

Rightward 30 deg

2.80 (1.34)

2.45 (1.17)

1.90 (.90)

1.73 (.62)

Saccade error variability ( sd )

Leftward 30 deg

1.59 (1.45)

1.22 (.90)

1.53 (.75)

1.77 (1.86)

Leftward 20 deg

1.23 (.74)

1.12 (.54)

1.13 (.80)

1.10 (.89)

Leftward 10 deg

.83 (.48)

.66 (.39)

.73 (.49)

.79 (.51)

Rightward 10 deg

.77 (.53)

.86 (.48)

.85 (.52)

.84 (.58)

Rightward 20 deg

1.26 (.77)

1.04 (.64)

1.13 (.74)

1.10 (.74)

Rightward 30 deg

1.94 (1.53)

1.66 (1.38)

1.45 (.99)

1.15 (.52)

Supplementary Table 5. Foveofugal ramp task performance of family members and controls.

Family Members (N=56)

Controls (N=36)

Target velocity

Leftward

Rightward

Leftward

Rightward

Pursuit latency in ms ( sd )

4 deg/sec

230.18 (49.40)

224.86 (38.74)

235.25 (33.63)

210.99 (44.25)

8 deg/sec

192.96 (34.56)

194.68 (31.24)

181.71 (40.25)

194.56 (40.29)

16 deg/sec

182.25 (29.17)

178.26 (26.72)

179.90 (33.92)

187.31 (31.15)

24 deg/sec

170.45 (38.77)

162.16 (22.11)

185.11 (46.00)

162.72 (28.30)

32 deg/sec

182.01 (25.30)

168.42 (32.48)

179.50 (29.68)

166.54 (30.57)

Sustained pursuit gain ( sd )

4 deg/sec

.87 (.10)

.91 (.08)

.90 (.07)

.91 (.07)

8 deg/sec

.82 (.12)

.85 (.08)

.87 (.08)

.86 (.09)

16 deg/sec

.66 (.14)

.71 (.13)

.75 (.08)

.77 (.11)

24 deg/sec

.53 (.15)

.54 (.12)

.59 (.13)

.58 (.14)

32 deg/sec

.33 (.11)

.40 (.13)

.43 (.10)

.47 (.13)

Pursuit gain computed as the ratio of eye velocity to target velocity during smooth pursuit.

Supplementary Table 6. Foveofugal step-ramp task performance of family members and controls.

Family Members (N=54)

Controls (N=34)

Target velocity

Leftward

Rightward

Leftward

Rightward

Initial Saccade latency in ms ( sd ) 2

4 deg/sec

220.34 (49.17)

222.18 (49.15)

218.40 (42.97)

224.02 (49.76)

8 deg/sec

224.10 (43.21)

219.79 (46.06)

218.86 (42.00)

220.46 (42.92)

16 deg/sec

221.55 (40.98)

215.49 (45.36)

220.59 (38.53)

222.01 (38.43)

24 deg/sec

220.85 (39.80)

214.68 (40.01)

215.81 (44.36)

223.82 (43.96)

Saccade gain * ( sd ) 2

4 deg/sec

.86 (.15)

.89 (.17)

.86 (.14)

.83 (.18)

8 deg/sec

.86 (.18)

.86 (.18)

.83 (.14)

.83 (.23)

16 deg/sec

.80 (.14)

.76 (.16)

.78 (.11)

.74 (.16)

24 deg/sec

.77 (.16)

.73 (.18)

.75 (.18)

.74 (.19)

Open-loop pursuit gain ( sd ) 2

4 deg/sec

1.10 (.42)

1.02 (.48)

1.04 (.41)

1.31 (.36)

8 deg/sec

.81 (.41)

.75 (.35)

.84 (.32)

.86 (.34)

16 deg/sec

.63 (.25)

.61 (.24)

.61 (.23)

.68 (.22)

24 deg/sec

.50 (.20)

.46 (.20)

.50 (.21)

.59 (.18)

Saccade gain computed as proportion of distance saccade moved toward target location in degrees of visual angle from center relative to distance from center of target location

Supplementary Table 7. Procedural learning performance of family members and controls on predictive saccade paradigm.

Family Members (N=54)

Healthy Controls (N=37)

Trial number

Leftward

Rightward

Leftward

Rightward

Saccade gain

1

.99 (.11)

.98 (.09)

.95 (.09)

.94 (.18)

2

.94 (.18)

.98 (.13)

.96 (.11)

.99 (.12)

3

.93 (.20)

.97 (.13)

.96 (.16)

.93 (.20)

4

.88 (.24)

.87 (.18)

.88 (.21)

.99 (.16)

5

.88 (.23)

.93 (.18)

.91 (.19)

.89 (.20)

6

.91 (.17)

.91 (.16)

.84 (.23)

.89 (.16)

7

.88 (.19)

.94 (.15)

.87 (.21)

.80 (.17)

8

.92 (.18)

.93 (.14)

.89 (.13)

.88 (.18)

9

.84 (.23)

.90 (.22)

.92 (.15)

.88 (.19)

10

.91 (.19)

.89 (.22)

.87 (.23)

.95 (.13)

11

.86 (.21)

.95 (.22)

.94 (.15)

.92 (.14)

12

.87 (.24)

.89 (.22)

.84 (.24)

.96 (.15)

13

.87 (.17)

.93 (.24)

.88 (.18)

.90 (.16)

14

.91 (.23)

.90 (.21)

.88 (.23)

.94 (.18)

15

.90 (.21)

.91 (.24)

.83 (.20)

.83 (.22)

16

.91 (.20)

.94 (.19)

.90 (.21)

.92 (.14)

17

.90 (.17)

.91 (.17)

.86 (.18)

.78 (.23)

18

.91 (.19)

.87 (.26)

.82 (.23)

.83 (.21)

19

.91 (.20)

.91 (.25)

.85 (.21)

.86 (.20)

20

.89 (.20)

.90 (.21)

.85 (.23)

.90 (.19)

Saccade latency

1

205.04 (63.63)

254.59 (58.97)

236.56 (60.47)

281.91 (77.65)

2

134.75 (107.15)

171.98 (91.40)

160.86 (74.06)

199.87 (65.60)

3

98.13 (146.77)

132.76 (128.47)

128.95 (102.18)

146.79 (103.87)

4

57.28 (152.60)

23.92 (155.58)

82.71 (124.20)

115.82 (105.08)

5

45.81 (145.35)

85.84 (127.85)

77.79 (122.86)

78.86 (128.29)

6

37.65 (127.50)

24.14 (144.04)

54.51 (137.34)

17.80 (130.59)

7

-10.35 (144.02)

55.69 (160.30)

67.19 (120.04)

26.58 (150.08)

8

44.02 (160.14)

29.89 (144.95)

49.10 (128.64)

26.71 (140.17)

9

21.06 (141.84)

54.82 (153.49)

47.79 (120.96)

31.51 (146.30)

10

38.12 (137.94)

9.98 (153.79)

10.78 (146.34)

4.79 (125.78)

11

33.34 (149.45)

30.16 (134.80)

17.80 (151.64)

-3.45 (130.93)

12

1.22 (158.66)

17.19 (154.65)

21.39 (129.91)

16.33 (130.13)

13

18.03 (140.43)

16.85 (152.80)

-22.32 (126.98)

-34.16 (144.14)

14

-15.92 (156.25)

-7.55 (158.53)

2.42 (137.76)

-18.50 (171.75)

15

1.58 (142.06)

-7.85 (143.39)

-9.96 (135.26)

-11.86 (142.54)

16

13.55 (156.51)

15.43 (164.40)

-4.99 (142.31)

-7.86 (159.35)

17

52.57 (140.55)

62.69 (137.88)

27.40 (135.88)

-1.89 (112.13)

18

.23 (110.290)

-7.67 (140.68)

16.48 (136.57)

-34.54 (127.66)

19

12.58 (141.56)

-5.72 (150.74)

-30.64 (167.96)

-51.47 (138.14)

20

24.79 (166.27)

-7.11 (154.47)

5.76 (161.18)

-24.76 (133.04)

Supplementary Table 8. Antisaccade performance of family members and controls.

Family Members (N=57)

Controls (N=40)

Target displacement

Gap

Overlap

Gap

Overlap

Latency in ms ( sd )

Leftward 30 deg

368.75 (54.42)

448.49 (58.61)

348.55 (58.99)

437.59 (68.03)

Leftward 20 deg

321.04 (53.93)

395.20 (62.57)

314.56 (61.28)

392.84 (50.40)

Leftward 10 deg

305.24 (61.50)

401.86 (66.81)

293.57 (55.49)

400.43 (71.86)

Rightward 10 deg

297.77 (68.33)

393.29 (72.26)

283.54 (52.16)

385.34 (66.57)

Rightward 20 deg

320.31 (62.69)

430.37 (69.77)

302.88 (58.14)

419.99 (57.80)

Rightward 30 deg

342.48 (53.28)

447.51 (65.19)

322.93 (52.79)

423.59 (71.18)

Percentage of trials with prosaccade error ( sd )

Leftward 30 deg

25 (27)

10 (15)

18 (21)

7 (13)

Leftward 20 deg

26 (24)

15 (22)

14 (14)

14 (16)

Leftward 10 deg

34 (25)

30 (23)

20 (21)

26 (22)

Rightward 10 deg

26 (26)

21 (22)

18 (17)

13 (17)

Rightward 20 deg

22 (25)

20 (22)

13 (11)

19 (19)

Rightward 30 deg

15 (22)

9 (15)

7 (10)

15 (15)